The paraglider computer-aided design guide

This CAD guide was compiled in one CD in HTML format supported by common internet browsers, contains a lot of articles on parachute design, paraglider aerodynamic and strength performances, illustrated by hundreds of pictures/graphs/movies, includes textile materials and airfoils data bases, as well as the software to simulate the parachute shape and stressing state in flight, aerodynamic performances of a ram-air airfoil, section, wing and parachute-payload system. One can run the CAD-compatible software directly from CD guide.

Hardware requirements: PC, 500MHz or above, at least 256Mb RAM, true color video card and monitor.
Software requirements: Windows 9x/2000/NT platform and MS Internet Explorer or Netscape navigator.

Beta version is under testing now.
The release version distribution expected soon.

Click HERE to download a paper (800Kb WinWord doc) concerning the software and applied results.

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The design guide includes the following chapters

Parachute system requirements analysis
Typical requirements
Canopy geometry (preliminary design)

Airfoil with inlet design
Airfoil geometry recommendations
Airfoil geometry data bases
Airfoil thickness
Inlet (size and position)
Aerodynamic performances prediction
How an airfoil performances depends upon:
        Airfoil thickness
        Inlet size
        Inlet position
        Angle of attack
        Fabric air permeability
        Tail deflection (brake)
        Roughness of the surface (cloth, seams, wrinkles, )
Wing and parachute + payload performances prediction based on airfoil performances

Load bearing rib design
The ways to keep a streamlined airfoil in flight
Suspension lines number and attachment points
Strengthening system design (tapes)
Flares design
Cross ports design (size, geometry, position on the rib)
Tail deflection range
The influence of:
        Angle of attack
        Fabric and tapes performances
        Warp/fill direction
Typical defects (wrinkles and bulges on the surface, ) and the ways to improve rib design
Wing and parachute + payload performances prediction based on rib deformed performances

Intermediate (non load bearing) rib specific design

End cell rib + stabilizer panel specific design
Stabilizer size and geometry
Stabilizer influence on paraglider performances

Section design
Distance between ribs, number of ribs
Averaged airfoil and rib geometry in flight, changes in aerodynamic performances
Wrinkles and bulges on the surface prediction and elimination
Tail deflection (brake)

Canopy design
Planform (rectangular, trapezoidal, elliptical, other)
Aspect ratio
Optimal angle of attack for the best gliding ratio
Suspension lines length to provide for the best gliding ratio
Aerodynamic and gliding performances depending on:
        Angle of attack
        Aspect ratio
        Canopy twisting
        Arc angle
        Suspension lines (length, diameter, )
        Flares and stabilizers
        Payload performances
        Reynolds number
        Guide lines deflection (turn and brake regimes)
Parachute shape in flight analysis
End-cell closure analysis
Strength analysis in free flight, turn and brake regimes
Specific analysis for powered paragliding
Apparent mass evaluation
Specific aerodynamic analysis for the flight in turbulent atmosphere, in ascending / descending flux

Payload performances
Influence of payload on gliding performances
Payload aerodynamic performances prediction
Typical payload shapes and performances

Strength analysis
Typical requirements
Tensions in parachute elements prediction
Steady loads prediction
Unsteady loads
Snatch force
Inflation, opening shock
Reefing (by slider, by contour line, sectional, others)
Loads during reinflation after partial collapse (ex., end cells closure)
What the strength depends on
Materials choice

Aerodynamic performances
Weight, volume

Theoretical limit in aerodynamic performance

Flight dynamics

Patterning for complex 3D shapes

Data Bases:
Airfoils (geometry for undimensioned thickness)
Textile materials (performances)
Experimental results (aerodynamic performances)
Theoretical results (simulation of parachute shape, tension in elements, aerodynamic performances)
Glossary (ram-air parachutes)
www resources

Basic Software
MONSTR-2.2 (structural analysis)
PARAD-2.2 (2D/3D aerodynamic analysis)
DVM-2 (ram-air airfoil aerodynamic analysis)
DVM-3 (ram-air wing aerodynamic analysis)

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